Mother of Pearl 2

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of Pearl from tropical seashells decorates this fabulous Kyoto Japanese coffer made for the European market around the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th century. The pieces of rainbow-hued iridescent shell are held in place by gilded copper rivets on a black and gold lacquered wood base (On display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; FE.33-1983).

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

Mother of pearl decorative inlay on a 16th century Japanese coffer

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved

Mother of Pearl 1

Ornamental iridescent veneer of mother-of pearl on an 18th century  bureau-bookcase

Mother of pearl is a wonderful iridescent material that is frequently used for artistic purposes. It comes from the inner surface of certain shells, sometimes gastropods like the Button Top Shell, and other times from bivalves such as the Freshwater Pearl Mussel. The inner or nacreous layer of certain shells is composed of crystals which are arranged in layers that reflect light in an attractive way. The colours reflected, and the intensity of the sheen, depend on the type of shell from which it has been obtained and also on the quality of light to which it is exposed. The same piece of mother of pearl can look different in different lights.

The photographs here show the details of the decorative veneer on a bureau-bookcase probably made in Mexico between 1780 and 1820. This is one of many fine items of antique furniture displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The veneer is composed of about 7,000 individual pieces of shell, each piece from a separate individual shell (most likely freshwater mussel), and each one having taken about 40 minutes to prepare and shape. The shape of every shimmering piece is highlighted to great effect by a very narrow border of contrasting dark wood.

Ornamental iridescent veneer of mother-of pearl on an 18th century  bureau-bookcase

Ornamental iridescent veneer of mother-of pearl on an 18th century  bureau-bookcase

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved

Lyme 8

 

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved

Lyme 7

 

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved

Rock Textures at Eype 1

View of the cliff on the western shore at Eype showing stratification

View of the cliff on the western shore at Eype showing stratification

The interesting thing about Eype Beach is that you don’t have to climb the cliffs to see the rocks in detail – the rocks come to you! Boulders of sandstone and limestone from high in the cliffs regularly collapse to the beach, which becomes strewn with them, and affords an opportunity to examine the composition of, and the fossil content of, the variety of rock types represented in the strata above shore level. Even the low, thick band of softer mudstones and shales slips down on a fairly regular basis, and liquified by small streams, oozes over the shingle of the upper beach.

It’s going to take me a while to work out which rock is which. However, I can say that Eype Beach has two different geologies more or less separated at Eypesmouth where a small stream cuts its way down a steep-sided valley through the predominantly soft rocks. If you turn right and westwards where the stream breaks through to the shore, and walk towards Thorncombe Beacon as I did, then on your right-hand side are cliffs made up of several virtually horizontal rock strata of different types of sedimentary rock. The lowermost layer, nearest to the level of the shingle beach, is a 55 foot depth of blue-grey Eype Clay Member made up from micaceous silty mudstone and shale – also called  the Micaceous Beds – from the Middle Jurassic Period.

Above the blue-grey mudstone, are the yellow layers of silts and sandstones of the Down Cliff Sand Member and the Thorncombe Sand Member – with sporadic fossil beds, and thinner bands of calcareous sandstone and ironshot limestone. You can easily see the contrasting colours of the different rocks in the cliff face.

I had hoped to find some brittle star fossils, that was the main aim of the visit, but I wasn’t lucky on this occasion. It was rather hot on the day and I don’t think I walked far enough along the shore to be in the most likely location. The Starfish Bed with Palaeosoma egertoni is at the very base of the Down Cliff Sand Member which itself overlies the Eype Clay Member. Large blocks of this rock fall to the beach – but you have to hope that the block has fallen the right way up for you to see the brittle star fossils, and also hope that a professional fossil hunter has not got there before you! I’ll have to keep on keep searching.

View looking west toward Thorncombe Beacon from the base of the cliff at Eype

View looking west toward Thorncombe Beacon from the base of the cliff at Eype

It was clear that many types of rock were identifiable on the beach; even the modern mud-slicks and clay seepages were interesting because they demonstrate and replicate the same  processes that would have contributed to the textures and patterns of the ancient rocks. As the soft muds dried out in the sun, the surfaces were beginning to form a crazy paving patchwork of cracks – the same as could be observed in nearby slabs of rock. As the liquified clays dribbled outward from the base of the cliff rock exposure, they incorporated assemblages of small pea-sized pebbles and who-knows-what man-made objects that might end up in rock strata of the future.

So the gallery of pictures today just shows details of a small selection of the rocks and sediments to be found on Eype Beach with a range of the natural textures and patterns they exhibit. It’s the starting point for the Eype geological learning journey.

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved.

Eype Beach Stream 1

Sweyne’s Howse

 

In the earlier  discussion about the strange stone that might be an ancient axe – which was found on the Worm’s Head Causeway on the Gower  Peninsula – I mentioned the nearby Neolithic chambered tombs. The most frequently found ancient tools in this area are the polished stone axes from the Neolithic. There are some earlier tools – but these are flint, and were probably made on a flint-working site that existed on the tidal island of Burry Holms at the north end of Rhossili beach. (The Worm’s Head Causeway is at the southern end of Rhossili beach).

The Neolithic period started about 6,000 years ago and was marked by an influx of farming communities who cleared the land for grazing and cultivation. These people left tools behind them, the ones most frequently found being the polished stone axes that have been recovered from sites such as Paviland, Oystermouth and Barland. The most noticeable remains of these people are the large megalithic structures. On Rhossili Down are the remains of chambered tombs belonging to this category: the best known of which are Sweyne’s Howses (there are two of them).

The images in this post show the location of Sweyne’s Howse on Rhossili Down – positioned on the land the Neolithic settlers cleared, at the junction between freely-drained and poorly drained soils, recognisable by the heathland vegetation on the one hand and the fertile cultivated fields on the other. The upland is covered with vibrant pink flowering Ling and Heather in the summer, and the ground is still grazed by sheep, cattle, and roaming wild ponies.

The tomb is now located amongst cleared bracken on the lower slopes of the Down. It looks very different from various angles, being comprised of massive slabs of local Old Red Sandstone Conglomerate – slabs that look like pillars when viewed end-on. The rocks are covered with a thick layer of lichens.

From higher up on Rhossili Down, it is possible to look down towards the north-west and see the island of Burry Holms where there was an earlier Mesolithic flint-working site. Looking down to the south-west, you can see the Worm’s Head and its Causeway where the strange stone was found.

I now have an appointment to take the stone to an archaeologist who is a specialist in stone tools at the National Museum of Wales; and a geologist will also be on hand to give their opinion. I am hoping that the stone is an axe – but I am also prepared to be disappointed because I know how easy it is for an amateur like myself to be mistaken about this kind of thing.

COPYRIGHT JESSICA WINDER 2014

All Rights Reserved